【瑞士】 世界之窗-芬蘭將實施 無條件基本收入

世.界.之‧窗-芬蘭將實施 無條件基本收入
2014年社會福利支出占GDP比重
世.界.之‧窗-芬蘭將實施 無條件基本收入
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新聞導讀 Basic income無條件基本收入,是近來歐洲社運的新想像,又稱 universal basic income或unconditional basic income,簡稱UBI。指國家無條件發給人民生活津貼,作為補充收入或替代工資。值得注意的是,芬蘭的社會福利支出占GDP比重達31%,高居經濟合 作暨發展組織(OECD)第二;芬蘭現階段先針對少數人試行這項政策,將來若全面推動,勢必要刪減其它福利支出以支應新政策的推動。 目前大部分國家的勞 工收入保障政策是採用法定最低薪資(Statutory/Legal minimum wages)制;例如OECD的成員國中就有26個採用法定最低薪資,僅有8個實施集體協商制(Collective agreements)。 歐洲國家開始考慮基本收入,是想讓勞工不必屈就剝削的工作環境,有機會學習轉換更好工作;收入增加,身體更健康,也減少國家醫 療支出。但勞工是否因為有了基本收入保障後,反而不去工作,成為政府實驗推動觀察重點。

Bloomberg reports that The Social Insurance Institution of Finland, known as Kela, will be responsible for carrying out the experiment that would start in 2017 and include 2,000 randomly selected welfare recipients. The level of basic income would be €560 a month, tax free and mandatory for those picked.

彭博社報導,2017年開始,芬蘭社會保險機關Kela將隨機挑選2千人試行「無條件基本收入」政策的影響。測試內容為每月發放560歐元(相當於19,730台幣)給這些挑選的人,作為不必納稅的基本工資。

The objective of the legislative proposal is to carry out a basic income experiment in order to assess whether basic income can be used to reform social security, specifically to reduce (1)incentive traps relating to working, the Social Affairs and Health Ministry said.

芬蘭的衛生社會福利部部長表示,立法提案試行「無條件基本收入」政策的目的,是為了瞭解該政策是否可以改進社會安全,尤其是減緩就業上的刺激政策陷阱。

The idea of a basic income, or paying everyone a (2)stipend, has (3)gained traction in recent years. It was rejected in a referendum in Switzerland as recently as June, where the suggested amount was 2,500 francs($3,338)for an adult and a quarter of that sum for a child. It has also drawn interest in Canada and the Netherlands.

無條件支付給全國公民一筆津貼的基本收入政策,近幾年愈來愈受到注意。就在今年6月,瑞士的公投反對支付每位成人2,500瑞士法郎(3,338元加幣)以及兒童625瑞士法郎。荷蘭與加拿大對此議題也十分關注。

 

新聞出處:http://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20160917000223-260210

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